Chapter 23 Questions
Section 1: Causes of the French Revolution
1. How did the structure of social classes in France lead to discontent?
2. How were economic problems a contributing cause of the French Revolution?
3. How did the economic crises in France lead to the meeting of the Estates-General?
Section 2: The French Revolution Begins
1. Why did the Third Estate declare itself to be the National Assembly?
2. What were the French peasants reacting to in their rebellions of 1789?
3. How does the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen reflect Enlightenment thought?
4. What was the connection between the actions of the representatives of the Third Estate, the Estates-General, and those of the peasants during the Great Fear?
5. How did the French Revolution enter a new phase after storming the Bastille?
6. Why did the royal family attempt to leave France?
7. In what ways did the end of the old order move the revolution toward a more radical phase?
Section 3: Chaos in France
1. Why did the French Revolution become more radical?
2. What radical steps did the National Convention take?
3. How did the new French Government deal with crises?
4. Why might the method of the King’s execution be significant?
5. Why did the French Government use force against its own people?
6. How did the constant transitions within the French Government influence its effectiveness?
Section 4: Napoleon Rules France
1. How did the transition from the Committee of Public Safety to the Directory help respond to the people’s needs?
2. How did instability in the French Government create an opportunity for Napoleon to take power?
3. How did Napoleon’s military background shape his perspective?
4. How did Napoleon’s Civil Code address the problems with the French legal system that were present before the Revolution?
Section 4: Napoleon’s Effects on Europe
1. Why would changes in France cause concern in other European nations?
2. Why might Napoleon have chosen to ally with states instead of taking them over?
3. What were the consequences for a country conquered by Napoleon’s Grand Army?
4. How did Napoleon’s disaster in Russia affect both his Grand Army & France as a nation?
5. How did Napoleon lose his empire?
6. What happened to revolutionary ideas after the French Revolution was over?
Section 5: European Reaction to the French Revolution & Napoleon
1. Why did the turmoil of the French revolutionary years result in a conservative European reaction?
2. Why did European leaders think it was important to apply conservatism at the Congress of Vienna?
3. What happened to revolutionary ideas after the French Revolution was over?
4. Why did nationalism become popular after the French Revolution?
Writing Assignments (Essays):
All essay writing assignments should be 2-4 pages long (“front-back-front” is 3, for example!) They must be labeled and handwritten. Proper essay format means an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
1. In proper essay format, discuss at least one political, economic, and social cause of the French Revolution & if each was solved by the Revolution. Describe how each was solved or, if left unsolved, how it continued to affect French society.
2. In proper essay format, answer the following: Discuss how The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and how it addressed the concerns of the French people at the time it was written, influenced France, other nations.
3. In proper essay format, discuss Napoleon’s motives for invading Russia, the difficulties he faced regarding this invasion, Russia’s response to Napoleon’s invasion, and the economic, human, and political toll of Napoleon’s retreat.
4. In proper essay format, answer the following: Did Napoleon preserve the ideals of the French Revolution through his domestic and foreign policies? Choose two that he did preserve, two he did not, and fully explain your opinions on each.